Vladimir Putin looks through 3D glasses during his visit to Moscow's Planetarium
Originally posted at http://ukhudshanskiy.dreamwidth.org/1288650.html.
Fermions and Bosons
There are, essentially, two types of things in the universe - bosons and fermions. Quantum field theory, for all of its wonder and complexity, basically just says that fermions interact by exchanging bosons amongst each other.“The electons belong to the class of elementary particles called leptons. The leptons and quarks together constitute the class called fermions. According to the Standard Model all mass consists of fermions. Whether the fermions combine to form a table, a star, a human body, a flower or do not combine at all depend on the elementary forces - the electromagnetic, the gravitational, the weak and the strong forces. According to the Standard Model all force is mediated by exchange of (gauge) bosons. The electromagnetic force is mediated by exchange of photons, the strong force by exchange of gluons while the weak force is mediated by exchange of W and Z bosons.” - Steen Ingemann
There are 24 different fermions - 6 quarks and 6 leptons, each with its own corresponding anti-particle. Likewise, there are also 6 elementary bosons, although the graviton and Higgs boson have not been observed yet.
Currently, we accept that there are four fundamental forces - gravity, electromagnetism, and the strong and weak nuclear forces. The gauge bosons in the Standard Model mediate these forces - such as Gluons mediating the strong force, W and Z bosons mediating the weak force, and hypothetical particles like the graviton that mediate gravity. You also might be familiar with all of the hype surrounding the Higgs Boson - a hypothetical (thus far) particle that is supposed to, effectively, determine why certain things have mass and others don’t.
These elementary particles all have a property about them called spin. Spin is a fundamental property of describing how these particles interact - which describes how the particles rotate about some axis. The speed of this spin cannot be increased or decreased, but the direction can change. Fermions have a half-integer spin, with an odd numerator (1/2, 3/2, 5/2…) and Bosons have an integer spin.
In classical electromagnetism, a charged, spinning object has certain magnetic properties - and the properties of particles are quite similar. Since Physicists love analogies, they deemed the quantum term “spin,” although it is a slight misinterpretation that quantum particles are solid objects that can ‘rotate’ in space.
A few sources: